How does a high-pressure cleaner work?

With the help of an integrated pump, the pressure washer builds up a continuous water pressure and shoots a jet of water at high pressure via a nozzle onto the surface to be cleaned. A commercially available cleaner can thus build up a water pressure of up to 160 bar. Most of the devices are driven by an electric motor. Rarely, high-pressure cleaners with combustion engines are also used in private households.

The individual components of the devices are a precisely coordinated interaction of various mechanical parts in conjunction with a hydraulic system. The drive, motor and valve control must go hand in hand to ensure trouble-free operation.

How much does a high-pressure cleaner cost?

Electric pressure washers are available in all price ranges. Depending on workmanship, equipment and performance, the following price information is only a rough guide. As a rule, there are less expensive devices, but you usually have to cut back on quality.

The cheapest are electric high-pressure cleaners, where good devices are already available from around 150 euros. Followed by battery models, which cost from 200 euros with battery and charger. The most expensive are gasoline-powered pressure washers, where you should invest 300 euros or more.

What are the advantages of a pressure washer over a garden hose?

The work season in the home domicile usually begins after the winter. Anyone who has ever tried to clean dirty sidewalk slabs, joints or the balcony with a simple garden hose or in combination with a broom or scrubber has quickly discovered that this is not very efficient and also turns out to be very time-consuming.

The power of a garden hose is not sufficient. Due to its almost non-existent water pressure, it is only suitable for running water onto the surface to be cleaned and then cleaning it with a brush or broom. This is not exactly the best way of cleaning and consumes many times more water.

Unlike the garden hose, the pressure washer has much more power. The pressure that the device builds up is over 100 bar, so high that even stuck impurities hardly stand a chance. We have already mentioned in the introduction the most important features and applications of a high-pressure cleaner.

How much water does a high-pressure cleaner use?

When using a high-pressure cleaner with an average water pressure of 140 bar, a water consumption of up to 600 liters per hour is realistic.

In comparison, when using a standard garden hose and a maximum water pressure of 6 bar, a good 6 to 8 times the amount of water is lost. Just not nearly as efficiently.

Roughly speaking, a high-pressure cleaner is made up of three components:

  1. For the drive, the device needs a motor. As a rule, conventional high-pressure cleaning machines are driven by an electric motor.
  2. A drive unit is also needed to transmit power to the integrated pistons.
    A brass or aluminum pump head. This is where the pressure is generated, so this component must be able to withstand a lot.
  3. These three components are the most important. However, the inner workings of a pressure washer naturally consist of many more parts. In addition to the housing, the chassis, the hose and the nozzle, a high-pressure cleaner is composed of up to 400 individual parts. That is quite a lot. In principle, it is a highly technical piece of equipment.

The most important component in a high-pressure cleaner is the so-called piston pump. This is usually made of brass or high-pressure aluminum. Since the devices must always be supplied with fresh water, they usually have a water connection at the front, which can be connected to the common hose couplings (for example, from GARDENA). The incoming water is pressurized with a so-called reciprocating piston. The water then passes through an outlet valve into the high-pressure water hose and through this into the spray nozzle.

By pulling the trigger on the nozzle, the water is forcefully shot out through the lance. Since the path of the water through the high-pressure cleaner always takes a minimum of time, the water pressure (working pressure) drops somewhat (by approximately 10 to 40 bar) during the working process, depending on the power of the pump. A distinction is therefore made between working pressure and maximum pressure.